Comfort through ‘the lively Word of God’: Katherine Willoughby and the Protestant Funeral Monument

Eva Lauenstein

Abstract


What does the use of biblical scripture, viewed through the funeral monument’s material and spatial presence in the church building disclose about the role of the places for the dead in establishing and maintaining church practices and ritual during the formative years of the Reformation? Taking the lead from the tomb of early evangelical reformer Katherine Willoughby, Duchess of Suffolk at Spilsby in Lincolnshire, this article examines the relationship between text, space and materiality in the formulation of a protestant rhetoric of congregational equality with its epicentre in the church nave. Tracing the texts and placements of commemorative structures, and their relationship to official as well as more radical protestant texts, including the Elizabethan Injunctions (1559), as well as the writing of John Dod (1615), this preliminary investigation explores the fertile relationship between object and text in the development of Protestant identities.

By applying recent archaeological scholarship into the role of ‘presencing’ mechanisms (Graves 2000, & Roffey, 2008) in the medieval and post-medieval church interior to the Willoughby monument in Spilsby’s north chancel, as well as two further examples of the tombs of protestant reformers, the notion of a protestant dismissal of the visual as a tool in devotion will be challenged. By introducing the central role of placement, the approach will destabilize the view that in the protestant church ‘the greatest visual impact came from words’ (MacCulloch, 1999, p. 159), and instead, place language into the wider architectural and spatial narratives of the church interior.


Keywords


Material Culture; Reformation; Funerary Art; Post-Medieval Architecture, Katherine Willoughby

Full Text:

PDF

References


Consulted Bible Texts:

Biblia sacra vulgata, (Clementine), in drbo.org, <http://www.drbo.org/index.htm> [accessed 1 August 2016]

Douay-Rheims Bible + Challoner Notes, in drbo.org, <http://www.drbo.org/index.htm> [accessed 1 August 2016]

The Bible and holy scriptvres conteyned in the Olde and Newe Testament. Translated According to the Ebrue and Greeke, and conferred with the best translations in diuers langages. With moste profitable annotations vpon all the Lord places, and other things of great importance as may appeare in the Epistle to the Reader [The Geneva Bible] (Geneva: Rouland Hall, 1560)

The Byble in Englyshe that is to saye the content of all the holy scrypture, both of ye olde and newe testament, truly translatedafter the veryte of the Hebrue and Greke textes, by ye dylygentstudye of dyuerse excellent learned men, expert in the forsaydetonges [The Great Bible] (London: Rychard Grafton and Edward Whitchurch, 1539)

The. holi. Bible. [The Bishops’ Bible] (London: Richard Jugge, 1568)

All Other Texts:

Becon, Thomas, The Castell of Comforte (London: John Day, 1549)

Bray, Gerald, Documents of the English Reformation, Library of Ecclesiastical History (Cambridge: James Clarke & Co, 1994)

Bryant, Christopher G. A., and David Jary, eds., Anthony Giddens: Critical Assessments, 4 vols (London: Routledge, 1997)

Bridges, John, The history and antiquities of Northamptonshire. Compiled from the manuscript collections of the Late Learned Antiquary John Bridges, Esq. By the Rev. Peter Whalley, 2 vols (Oxford: T. Payne, 1791)

Buttick, George Arthur, ed., The Interpreter’s Bible: The Holy Scriptures in the King James and Revised Standard Versions with General Articles and Introduction, Exegesis, Exposition for Each Book of the Bible, 12 vols (New York: Abingdon Press, 1954)

Clay, Rev. William Keatinge, ed., Private Prayers, Put Forth by Authority during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1851)

Cleaver, Robert, John Dod, A briefe explanation of the whole booke of the Prouerbs of Salomon (London: Felix Kyngston, 1615)

Cummings, Brian, ed., The Book of Common Prayer: The Texts of 1549, 1559, and 1662 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Dickens, A. G., and Robert Parkyn, ‘Robert Parkyn’s Narrative of the Reformation’, English Historical Review, 62.242 (1947), 58-83 <https://doi.org/10.1093/ehr/LXII.CCXLII.58> [accessed 9 January 2017]

Dod, John, Bathshebaes instructions to her sonne Lemuel containing a fruitfull and plaine exposition of the last chapter of the Prouerbs. Describing the duties of a great-man, and the vertures of a gracious woman. Penned by a godly and learned man, now with God. Perused, and published for the use of Gods church (London: John Beale, 1614)

Duffy, Eamon, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England 1400-1580 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992)

Fielding, J., ‘Dod, John (1550–1645)’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edn, January 2008 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/7729> [accessed 1 August 2016]

Franklin-Harkrider, Melissa, Women, Reform and Community in Early Modern England: Katherine Willoughby, Duchess of Suffolk, and Lincolnshire’s Godly Aristocracy, 1519-1580 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2008)

Graves, Pamela, ‘Social Space in the English Medieval Parish Church’, in Anthony Giddens: Critical Assessments, ed. by Christopher G. A. Bryant and David Jary, 4 vols (London: Routledge, 1997), IV, pp. 262-288

Graves, Pamela, The Form and Fabric of Belief: The Archaeology of Lay Experience in Medieval Norfolk and Devon, BAR British Series 311 (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2000)

Hasler, P. W., ed., The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1558-1603, 3 vols (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1981)

Hicks, Michael, ‘Willoughby family (per. c.1300–1523)’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edn, January 2008 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/52801> [accessed 5 May 2016]

Hoak, Dale, ed., Tudor Political Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)

Holles, Gervase, Lincolnshire Church Notes made by Gervase Holles A. D. 1634 to A. D. 1642, ed. by R. E. G. Cole (Lincoln: W. K. Morton & Sons, 1911)

Kew, The National Archives, State Papers Domestic Edward VI, SP 10

King, Chris, Duncan Sayer, eds., The Archaeology of Post Medieval Religion (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2011)

Latimer, Hugh, 27 sermons preached by the ryght Reuerende father in God and constant matir of Iesus Christe, Maister Hugh Latimer, as well such as in tymes past haue bene printed, as certayne other commyng to our handes of late, whych were yet neuer set forth in print. Faithfully perused [and] allowed accordying to the order appoynted in the Quenes Maiesties iniunctions. 1. Hys sermon Ad clerum. 2. Hys fourth sermon vpon the plough. 3. Hys. 7. sermons before kyng Edward. 4 Hys sermon at Stamforde. 5. Hys last sermon before kyng Edward. 6. Hys. 7. sermons vpon the Lordes prayer. 7. Hys other. 9. sermons vpon certayne Gospels and Epistles, ed. by Augustine Bernher (London: John Day, 1562)

Lincoln, Lincolnshire Archives, 10-ANC/317/1

Llewellyn, Nigel, Funeral Monuments in Post-Reformation England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

Newman, Christine M., ‘Bellasis family (per. c.1500–1653)’, in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edn, January 2008 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/71863> [accessed 1 August 2016]

Pettegree, Andrew, ed., The Reformation World (London: Routledge, 2000)

Pevsner, Nikolaus and John Harris, Lincolnshire, The Buildings of England (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1964)

Pevsner, Nikolaus, Yorkshire: The North Riding, The Buildings of England (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966)

Phillippy, Patricia, ‘“Monumental Circles” and Material Culture in Early Modern England’, Early Modern Women, 4 (2009), 139-147

Roffey, Simon, Chantry Chapels and Medieval Strategies for the Afterlife (Stroud: Tempus, 2008)

Roffey, Simon, ‘Romantic Anachronisms? Chantry Chapels in the 19th Century’, in The Archaeology of Post Medieval Religion, ed. by Chris King and Duncan Sayer (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2011)

Ryrie, Alec, The Gospel and Henry VIII: Evangelicals in the Early English Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003) <https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511496028> [accessed 9 January 2017]

Sherlock, Peter, Monuments and Memory in Early Modern England (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008)

Smith, Harry Cotton, The Town of Sir John Franklin: A History of Spilsby in Lincolnshire, with Notes on Eresby and Other Places Connected Therewith (Spilsby: The Spilsby Printing Company, 1892)

Spicer, Andrew, ‘Architecture’, in The Reformation World, ed. by Andrew Pettegree (London: Routledge, 2000), pp. 505-520

Terrien, Samuel, ‘Job: Introduction’, in The Interpreter’s Bible: The Holy Scriptures in the King James and Revised Standard Versions with General Articles and Introduction, Exegesis, Exposition for Each Book of the Bible, ed. by George Arthur Buttick, 12 vols (New York: Abingdon Press, 1954), III, pp. 877-905

Tittler, Robert, ‘Political Culture and the Built Environment of the English Country Town, c.1540–1620’, in Tudor Political Culture, ed. by Dale Hoak (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995)

Tomlins, Thomas Edlyne, John Raithby, eds., The statutes at large, of England and of Great Britain: from Magna Carta to the union of the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland, 20 vols (London: G. Eyre and A. Strahan, 1811)

Whiting, Robert, The Reformation of the English Parish Church (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010)

Woodward, Jennifer, The Theatre of Death: The Ritual Management of Royal Funerals in Renaissance England 1570-1625 (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1997)




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24134/be.v1i1.25

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Eva Lauenstein

License URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/